Adebolajo, 29, and Adebowale, 22, drove into Fusilier Rigby with a car before hacking him to death in Woolwich, south-east London, in May last year.
The judge, Mr Justice Sweeney, said Adebolajo’s was one of those “rare cases” warranting a whole-life term.
The pair were absent during sentencing after a fracas in the dock.
As Mr Justice Sweeney began to sentence the men they started shouting and scuffling with court security guards. They had to be forced to the ground and were removed from court.
Fusilier Rigby’s family wept as Adebolajo shouted “Allahu Akbar”, and Adebowale called out “that’s a lie” as the judge told them their extremist views were “a betrayal of Islam”.
One relative needed medical treatment after the outbursts. The judge later apologised for the fact that the family had to witness what happened in the dock.